AGGREGATE: Materials such as sand, rock, and gravel used to make concrete.
AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE: Concrete that has air in the form of minute bubbles mechanically mixed into the concrete to provide structural strength and quicker curing.
ANCHOR BOLTS: Bolts embedded in concrete used to hold a structural member in place.
ATTIC OR ROOF SPACE: The space between the top-floor ceiling and roof.
BACKFILL: The replacement of earth after excavation.
BALUSTRADE: A railing consisting of a series of balusters resting on a base, usually the threads, which supports a continuous stair or handrail.
BASEBOARD: A molded board placed against a wall around the room next to the floor to conceal the joint between the finished floor and wall finish.
BASEMENT: The base story of a house, usually below grade.
BAY WINDOW: A rectangular, curved, or polygonal window, or group of windows usually supported on a foundation extending beyond the main wall of the building.
BEAM: A principal structural member used between posts, columns, or walls to support vertical loads.
BEARING PARTITION: A partition that supports a vertical load in addition to its own weight.
BEARING WALL: A wall that supports a vertical load in addition to its own weight.
BEVEL: To cut to an angle other than a right angle, such as the edge of a board or door.
BOARD FOOT: The equivalent of a board, one foot square and one inch thick.
BRICK CONSTRUCTION: A type of construction in which the exterior walls are bearing walls made of brick.
BRICK MOLDING: A molding for windows and exterior door frames. Serves as the boundary molding for brick or other siding material, and forms a rabbet for the screens, and/or storm sash or combination door.
CABINET-DRAWER GUIDE: A wood strip used to guide the drawer as it slides in and out of its opening.
CABINET-DRAWER KICKER: Wood cabinet member placed immediately above and generally at the centre of a drawer to prevent tilting down when pulled out.
CASEMENT: A window in which the sash swings on its vertical edge, so it may be swung in or out.
CASING: The trimming around a door or window, either outside or inside, or the finished lumber around a post or beam.
CAULK: To seal and make waterproof cracks and joints, especially around window and exterior door frames.
COLUMN: Upright supporting member that is circular, square, or rectangular in shape.
CORNER BEAD: Molding used to protect corners. Also a metal or plastic reinforcement placed on corners before plastering.
COUNTERFLASHING: Flashing on chimneys at the roof-line to cover shingle flashing and to prevent moisture entry.
DEAD LOAD: The weight of permanent, stationary construction included in a building.
DIMENSION LUMBER: Lumber 2 to 5 inches thick and up to 12 inches wide.
DOOR FRAME: An assembly of wood or metal parts that form an enclosure and support for a door. Door frames are classified as interior or exterior.
DOOR STOP: A spring stopper screwed to a baseboard face or door frame to prevent the door from swinging through.
DORMER: A projecting structure built out from a sloping roof. Usually includes one or more windows.
DRIP CAP: A molding that directs water away from a structure to prevent seepage under the exterior facing material. Applied mainly over window and exterior door frames.
DRYROT: A term loosely applied to many types of decay, but especially to that which, when in an advanced stage, permits the wood to be easily crushed to a dry powder.
DRYWALL: Premanufactured material for wall covering that does not need to be mixed with water before application.
EAVES: The margin or lower part of a roof that projects over an exterior wall. Also called overhang.
EFFLORESCENCE: Salty residues noted on surface of concrete structures.
EXPANSION JOINT: A bituminous fiber strip used to separate units of concrete to prevent cracking due to dimensional change caused by shrinkage and variation in temperature.
FASCIA: A wood member used for the outer face of a box cornice where it is nailed to the ends of rafters and lookouts.
FLASHING: Sheet metal or other material used in roofing and wall construction (especially around chimneys, and vents) to prevent rain or other water from entering.
FLOOR AREA: The gross floor area, less the area of partitions, columns, stairs, and other openings.
FLUE: The space or passage in chimney through which hot smoke, gas, or fumes rise. Each passage is called a flue, which, with the surrounding material, makes up the chimney.
FOOTING: The spreading course or courses at the base or bottom of a foundation wall or column.
FOUNDATION: The supporting portion of a structure below the first-floor construction, or grade, including the footings, which transfers the weight of the building load to the ground.
FRAMING: The timber structure of a building that gives shape and strength, including interior and exterior walls, floor, roof, and ceilings.
FURRING: Narrow strips of wood spaced to form a nailing base for another surface. Furring is used to level and form an air space between the two surfaces to give a thicker appearance to the base surface.
GABLE: That portion of a wall contained between the slopes of a double-sloped roof, or that portion contained between the slope of a single-sloped roof and a line projected horizontally through the lowest elevation of the roof construction.
GLAZING: The process of installing glass into sash and doors. Also refers to glass panes inserted in types of frames.
GUTTER OR EAVESTROUGH: Wood or metal trough attached to the edge of a roof or eaves to collect and conduct water from rain and melting snow away from the roof.
HEADER: Horizontal structural member that supports the load over an opening, such as a window or door. Also called a lintel.
HEADROOM: The clear space between floor line and ceiling contained in a stairway.
HIP ROOF: A roof that rises from all four sides of a building to meet at the roof peak.
HOSE BIB: A water faucet mounted on a wall that is threaded so a hose connection can be attached.
INSULATION (Thermal): Any material high in resistance to heat transmission that is placed in structures to reduce the rate of heat loss.
JACK RAFTER: A short rafter framing between the wall plate and a hip rafter, or a hip or valley rafter and ridge board.
JAMB: The top and two sides of a door or window frame that contact the door or sash; top jamb and side jambs.
JOINT CEMENT: A powder mixed with water and applied to the joints between sheets of gypsum wallboard or drywall.
JOIST: One of a series of parallel framing members used to support floor and ceiling loads, and supported in turn by other beams, girders, or bearing walls.
JOIST HANGER: A steel section shaped like a saddle and bent so it can be fastened to a beam or structural member to provide end support for joists, headers, trusses, etc.
KEYWAY: A recessed area running down the centre and length of a foundation footing, which acts as a keyed joint when pouring the foundation.
KILN-DRIED: Wood seasoned by artificial heat in a mechanical kiln, with controlled humidity and air circulation.
LEADER OR DOWNSPOUT: A vertical pipe that carries rainwater from the gutter to the ground or drain.
LINEAL FOOT: Having length only. Pertaining to a line one-foot long, as distinguished from a square foot or cubic foot.
LINTEL: A horizontal structural member supporting the load over an opening such as a door or window.
LIVE LOAD: The total of all moving and variable loads that may be placed on a structure of a building.
LOOKOUT: Structural member running between the lower end of a rafter and the outside wall. Used on the underside of the roof sheathing at the overhang to support the soffit and fascia.